by Edward Majewski
For a number of decades in the second half of the XXth century, agricultural land has been divided in Poland between three sectors: family, state owned and cooperative farms, with a dominating share of private, individual farmers in land use. As a result, ownership structure of agricultural land in Poland is quite unique among the former socialist Central and East European countries. Until the year 1989, when the transformation to a market economy was initiated, the landmarket in Poland was almost non-existent. The State Land Fund (SLF), an institution created in 1944 was for decades a substitute to land market. Originally, the Fund was responsible for the implementation of the land reform. After nationalization or confiscation of real estates, state farms have been established on a larger part of agricultural land under Fund’s management. The rest has been divided between former farm workers and small farmers owing less than 5 hectares of land.